Aerosol hygroscopic properties determine how effectively can be the particles activated to cloud droplets, and also how they interact with solar and terrestrial radiation. Both processes strongly influence Earth’s radiation balance. In sub-zero conditions, cloud hydrometeor number and size are determined by ice formation process that also alters cloud lifetime and thus radiation balance as well. Current simplifications of mixing state of AA representation in models can lead to remarkable errors, a maximum of about 90% in cloud, and a proper ice nucleation representation would change cloud glaciation rate and hence result in a different anthropogenic radiative forcing. Unfortunately, the predictive understanding of ice nucleation is still insufficient and more real-world data are needed. The ice nucleating particles will be studied in the central Europe region using both online and offline methods.

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